V2X is an emerging and growing field as more EVs have hit the market and some early generation models are reaching their EOL. But what is V2X? In this section, we will define what V2X technology is, discuss why it is important, and provide some example applications. This section has been placed where it is because V2X technology can help provide energy for setting up your BESS — but by its nature there are some EOL applications that could be applied to your own recycling. We’ll refrain from addressing those here in too much detail and instead cover them in the EOL section. 

Main Points: 

  • V2X stands for “vehicle to anything” and has many applications (V2G [vehicle-to-grid], V2H [vehicle-to-home], V2B [vehicle-to-building], and so on) where the vehicle is providing an additional energy source to these applications using a bidirectional charger. 
  • The implementation of this technology for grid applications can help with frequency regulation, peak shaving, power regulation, and power support. 
  • When V2X is used, it creates a circular economy, provides energy security, and can help reduce pollution. 

First, Read This

The following excerpt from DNV, a Norwegian company, explains V2X. One application that isn’t highlighted here is repurposing or reusing retired EV batteries for V2X technology. This application is typically for grid use. 

“V2X technologies, including vehicle-to-grid (V2G), vehicle-to-home (V2H), and vehicle-to-building (V2B), have the potential to revolutionize the way we use and manage energy in transportation and buildings. V2G is a concept that enables EVs to not only draw power from the grid but also provide power back to the grid. Fundamentally, this process entails the utilization of parked and unutilized EVs as a source of power for the electricity grid during periods of high demand, while simultaneously returning that power back to the same EVs during times of low demand. This mechanism permits the grid to draw on EVs’ stored energy to accommodate sudden surges in power requirements, such as when households collectively activate high-powered electrical appliances, like kettles, during half-time breaks in a football game. The EVs’ battery power is replenished in the early hours of the morning when people are sleeping, and the electricity load is low. 

V2H is a small-scale version of V2G. It allows homes to be supplied with power stored in the EV’s battery through the home power network, serving as a backup energy source. V2B follows a similar concept, and setups can vary between the connection to a single-family home or an apartment building. V2H and V2B do not directly affect the grid but contribute to a local balance by providing energy to power the building even during power outages…” 

Excerpt from https://www.dnv.com/energy-transition-outlook/v2x.html 

Next, Read This

Because an EV’s battery can help supply power to the grid and home, setting up charging stations and having the infrastructure in place to cooperate with your BESS can be a useful energy source. How do we make that happen? That same article from DNV covers some of the technical aspects of how this connection is made: 

“V2X systems use a combination of hardware and software, including vehicle controllers, inverters, and communication protocols, to enable the bi-directional flow of power and data between EVs and external systems. These systems rely on standard communication protocols such as CHAdeMO, Combined Charging System (CCS), and Open Charge Point Protocol (OCPP) to ensure interoperability between different systems and technologies. The EV is equipped with a bi-directional charger (AC–DC and DC–DC) that can both charge the vehicle’s battery and discharge energy back to the grid or home/building (Tan, 2019). Additionally, the charging infrastructure includes a smart charging station that communicates with the vehicle and the respective grid, monitoring the battery’s state of charge and adjusting the charging rate to optimize the vehicle’s charging and discharging behaviour. Most major OEMs committed to deliver V2X-compatible electric cars in this decade while charge point manufacturers have made a similar commitment.” 

Excerpt from https://www.dnv.com/energy-transition-outlook/v2x.html 

Now, Consider This 

To further highlight the importance and application of V2X, the following graphic from Shell (Figure 8) provides an excellent visual representation. As discussed in the Use Cases section, frequency regulation can help mitigate the stress of high use times. The figure highlights how V2X technology can help with that frequency regulation by providing additional energy. 

Figure 8. Applications of V2X (source)

Finally, Read This

The previous sections have covered high-level information about V2X technology. In this last excerpt from M. A. Rehman et al.’s A comprehensive overview of vehicle to everything (V2X) technology for sustainable EV adoption, we’ll go into a little more depth on V2G. The table that follows the excerpt summarizes some of the paper’s details; if you’re interested in other V2X applications, please consider reading the paper. 

“The V2G mode of operation for electric vehicles provides a variety of services, including backup power in the event of renewable energy source failure, peak shaving, active power regulation, reactive power support, valley filling, compensation for harmonics in grid current, and ancillary services like voltage and frequency regulation. Reactive power support is a critical service provided by V2G to reduce the difference between supply and load demand of reactive power and regulate bus voltages by inserting reactive power into the power grid [58]. The V2G mode can also improve voltage profiles by charging the EV during low peak demand and discharging during high peak demand. Different control schemes and controllers can enhance the steady-state and dynamic response performance of the system, increase robustness, and reduce the impact of external disturbances. The reference value for reactive and active power is evaluated by grid voltages. Variation in demand of power from main grid is efficiently handled by V2G [59]. 

V2G systems require a charge equalization circuit (CEC) to overcome charge imbalance caused by differences in battery modules. Energy management systems (EMS) and droop control techniques are used to optimize distributed energy in EVs and control charging/discharging. V2G systems are used for peak shaving and valley filling in load demand profiles. Power electronics converters and voltage controllers are used to regulate voltages and reduce harmonics in grid currents. V2G systems can mitigate generation uncertainty from renewable energy sources, but stochastic programming and smart charging are needed to handle battery degradation and uncertainty in charging EVs. Probabilistic load flow techniques are used to minimize battery degradation costs and evaluate the addition of wind turbines to the V2G system [60]. The various benefits that V2G can offer to different service providers are listed in Table 2.” 

Benefit Description 
For EV Owner Reduces ownership cost of EVs, serves as home energy storage and backup storage 
For Grid Operator New resource for regulation and power storage, solves issues with renewable energy and grid congestion 
For Government Creates circular economy, provides energy security, promotes a greener environment, and reduces noise pollution 
For Aggregator/EV Operator New commercial potential in renewable energy storage and grid balancing 
For Office Owners and Businesses Facilitates peak shaving, load leveling, and balancing of electricity demand, potentially reducing electricity costs 
Table 2. Benefits of V2G for different service providers [25,53].